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First- and Second-Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults

Slide: 19 of 43

Effectiveness and Efficacy of Antipsychotics

Efficacy studies are randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) designed to demonstrate a clinical benefit. Participants are enrolled based on restrictive inclusion and exclusion criteria. The comparator is usually placebo.

Effectiveness studies may be RCTs but can include retrospective cohort studies and other study formats. They are designed to examine clinical effects of treatments in typical medical practice. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are not as restrictive as in efficacy trials. The comparator is usually an active control or “usual care,” rather than placebo. The treatment setting may vary widely among the participants.