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Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Orthopedic Surgery

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Rating the Strength of Evidence From the Comparative Effectiveness Review

The Evidence-based Practice Center GRADE approach, based on the standard GRADE approach, was used to assess the quality of the body of evidence for each outcome. The overall strength of evidence was graded as high (high confidence that the evidence reflects the true effect; further research is very unlikely to change our confidence in the estimate of effect), moderate (moderate confidence that the evidence reflects the true effect; further research may change our confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate), low (low confidence that the evidence reflects the true effect; further research is likely to change our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate), or insufficient (evidence is either unavailable or does not permit estimation of an effect). The authors also independently evaluated the applicability to real-world practice of the total body of evidence within a given clinical indication using the PICOTS framework (population, intervention, comparator, outcome, timing, and setting).