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Insulin Delivery and Glucose Monitoring Methods for Diabetes Mellitus: Comparative Effectiveness

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Background: Disease Burden of Diabetes Mellitus

Hyperglycemia resulting from diabetes mellitus, if untreated, can lead to long-term complications, including microvascular complications (e.g., retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral and autonomic neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (e.g., coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease).

In pregnant women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes, poor glycemic control is associated with poorer pregnancy outcomes. Hyperglycemia early in pregnancy is associated with fetal anomalies, and hyperglycemia later in pregnancy can be associated with macrosomia, delivery complications, stillbirth, neonatal hypoglycemia, and increased referral for C-section. Most pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes have type 1 diabetes.