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Management of Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 1–3

Slide: 12 of 29

Clinical Questions Addressed in the CER: Screening and Monitoring

Questions related to screening for CKD include:

  • In asymptomatic adults with or without recognized risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence, progression, or complications, what direct evidence is there that systematic CKD screening improves clinical outcomes?
  • In asymptomatic adults with or without risk factors for CKD incidence, progression, or complications, what is the accuracy and reliability of CKD screening and the prevalence of CKD identifiable by screening?
  • Does initiating treatment for CKD as a result of systematic screening improve clinical outcomes when compared to treatment initiated after incidental CKD diagnosis during routine clinical practice?
  • How do patient factors and CKD screening thresholds modify the yield of CKD screening and its association with clinical benefits?
  • What harms result from systematic CKD screening in asymptomatic adults with or without recognized risk factors for CKD incidence, progression, or complications?
  • How do patient factors and CKD screening thresholds modify the association of CKD screening with harms?

Questions related to monitoring include:

  • Among adults with CKD stages 1–3, whether detected by systematic screening or as part of routine care, what direct evidence is there that monitoring for worsening kidney function and/or kidney damage improves clinical outcomes?
  • How do patient factors, CKD severity/stage, and CKD monitoring intervals modify the association of CKD monitoring with clinical benefits?
  • Among adults with CKD stages 1–3, whether detected by systematic screening or as part of routine care, what harms result from monitoring for worsening kidney function/kidney damage?
  • How do patient factors, CKD severity/stage, and CKD monitoring intervals modify the association of CKD monitoring with harms?