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Management of Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 1–3

Slide: 21 of 29

Adverse Events of Treatment

Withdrawals and adverse events were reported in only a few randomized controlled trials. An insufficient strength of evidence rating was assigned to the question of harms associated with treatment of early stage chronic kidney disease because withdrawals often were not reported separately by treatment group; adverse events often did not appear predefined, systematically collected and reported, or separated by treatment group. Although limitations in reporting impeded the quantitative synthesis of withdrawal and adverse events data from different studies, the adverse events reported generally were consistent with the known potential adverse effects of these treatments (e.g., hypotension with antihypertensive medications, cough with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), edema with calcium channel blockers, hyperkalemia with ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers*). The strength of evidence for these findings was insufficient.

*Clinicians should refer to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration label for each of these agents for full information on adverse effects.