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Management of Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 1–3

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Background: Associated Adverse Outcomes

Chronic kidney disease has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. Many studies have reported that a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 30–59 mL/min/1.73 m2 is associated with an increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease, fractures, bone loss, infections, cognitive impairment, and frailty. A graded relationship seems to exist between the severity of proteinuria or albuminuria and adverse health outcomes, including mortality, end-stage renal disease, and cardiovascular disease. The risk for adverse outcomes conferred by reduced GFR and increased albuminuria (or proteinuria) appears to be independent and multiplicative.