Management of Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 1–3
Background: Associated Adverse Outcomes
Chronic kidney disease has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. Many studies have reported that a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 30–59 mL/min/1.73 m2 is associated with an increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease, fractures, bone loss, infections, cognitive impairment, and frailty. A graded relationship seems to exist between the severity of proteinuria or albuminuria and adverse health outcomes, including mortality, end-stage renal disease, and cardiovascular disease. The risk for adverse outcomes conferred by reduced GFR and increased albuminuria (or proteinuria) appears to be independent and multiplicative.
- Fink HA, Ishani A, Taylor BC, et al. Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 1–3: Screening, Monitoring, and Treatment. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 37 (Prepared by the Minnesota Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. HHSA 290-2007-10064-I). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; January 2012. AHRQ Publication No. 11(12)-EHC075-EF. Available at www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/ckd.cfm.
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