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Nonpharmacologic Interventions for Treatment-Resistant Depression in Adults

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Background: Psychotherapies (CBT and IPT)

Evaluated psychotherapies included CBT and IPT. Psychotherapy aims to identify negative depressogenic cognitions or interpersonal behaviors. CBT emphasizes the important role of thinking in how we feel and what we do, and IPT focuses on the interpersonal context of depression and on building interpersonal skills. Average duration of treatment is 3 to 4 months of weekly sessions. There are no associated serious risks or adverse effects that are commonly reported for these treatments, though they should not be used in patients with cognitive disorders. While the FDA remains silent on the use of psychotherapies for treatment of patients with TRD, the treatment has been used for decades in this population. It is usually widely available, although not all psychotherapists practice CBT and IPT.