First- and Second-Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults
Modes of Results Reporting and Statistical Analysis in the Comparative Effectiveness Review (1 of 2)
95% Confidence Interval: The range of statistically valid results that will include the true population mean in 95 of 100 repeated experiments.
Mean Difference (MD): The difference between treatment and comparison group means. To determine a standardized mean difference (SMD), results from different scales are normalized to a common, “standardized” scale before calculating the mean difference. For both the MD and the SMD, the result is statistically significant (p < 0.05) when the 95-percent confidence interval does not include 0.0, which is the point of no difference between groups.
Relative Risk (RR): The ratio of the rate (absolute risk, probability) of an event in the treatment group to the rate of the event in the comparison group. For RR, the result is statistically significant at p < 0.05 when the 95-percent confidence interval does not include 1.0, which is the point of equal risk for both groups.
- Seida J, Schouten J, Mousavi S, et al. First- and Second-Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 39 (Prepared by the University of Alberta Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10021). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; February 2012. AHRQ Publication No. 11(12)-EHC077-EF. Available at www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/pedantipsych.cfm.
- Higgins JPT, Green S, eds. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Version 5.1.0. London: The Cochrane Collaboration; March 2011. Available at www.cochrane-handbook.org.
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