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First- and Second-Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults

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Summary of Efficacy and Effectiveness Studies of Antipsychotics in Pediatric Use

The included studies were limited to those that enrolled children (≤12 years of age), youth (12–18 years of age), and young adults (≤24 years of age). Comparisons of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) with placebo were the most commonly reported studies. Too few placebo comparison studies of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) for treatment of psychiatric disorders of children were reported to permit conclusions about effect sizes and statistical significance.

Head-to-head comparisons of FGAs with other FGAs included in this review (two studies) were studies about treatment of schizophrenia. Head-to-head comparisons of FGAs versus SGAs that met the criteria for inclusion in this review (17 studies) were investigations for treatment of schizophrenia, pervasive developmental disorder (autism), and Tourette’s syndrome. Head-to-head comparisons of SGAs with other SGAs (46 studies) were investigated for treatment of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and behavioral issues.