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Management of Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 1–3

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Clinical Questions Addressed in the CER: Clinical Outcomes of Interest From Treatments

The primary clinical outcomes of interest included reduced mortality and incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The secondary clinical outcomes of interest were cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications and improved quality of life. While CVD complications are very important patient outcomes, among the possible clinical outcomes of interest the greatest emphasis was placed on the primary outcomes of mortality and ESRD. The remaining outcomes are the intermediate outcomes of interest including reduced incident stage 4 chronic kidney disease, doubling of creatinine, and halving of the estimated glomerular filtration rate.