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Evidence-based Practice Center (EPC) Reports Related to Medicines on the Medicare and Medicaid Drug Spending Dashboards

Evidence-based Practice Center (EPC) Reports Related to Medicines on the Medicare and Medicaid Drug Spending Dashboards

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have two online dashboards with information on prescription drugs in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. CMS selected drugs for inclusion in the dashboards based on three criteria: 1) drugs with high spending on a per user basis (Medicare Program) and drugs with high spending on a per prescription fill basis (Medicaid Program); 2) drugs with high total program spending; and 3) drugs with high costs increases in recent years. This list of medications contributes to sharing of information about drug spending, and enhances and elevates the discussion around the rising costs of drugs.

Evidence reviews by the EPC Program synthesize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of some of these drugs when used by certain populations for specific conditions. The list of EPC reports relevant to the drugs on the Medicare and Medicaid Drug Spending Dashboards can be found below.

For the complete Medicare and Medicaid Drug Spending Dashboards, go to https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/Information-on-Prescription-Drugs/.

Evidence-based Practice Center (EPC) reports related to medicines on the Medicare and Medicaid Drug Spending Dashboards
Drug Name (generic) EPC Report Title (Publication Date)
Abilify (Aripiprazole) First- and Second-Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults (February 2012)
First and Second Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults-Comparative Effectiveness Review Update
Off-label Use of Atypical Antipsychotics: an Update (September 2011)
Psychosocial and Pharmacologic Interventions for Disruptive Behavior in Children and Adolescents (October 2015)
Medical and Sensory-Related Therapies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Update
Comparative Effectiveness of Strategies To De-escalate Aggressive Behavior in Psychiatric Patients in Acute Care Setting (July 2016)
Treatment for Bipolar Disorder
Anxiety in Children
Treatments for Adults with Schizophrenia
First Generation vs Second Generation Antipsychotics in Adults: Comparative Effectiveness (2012)
Abraxane; Paclitaxel Protein-Bound Treatment of Nonmetastatic Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer (June 2015)
Accuneb; Albuterol Sulfate (Albuterol Sulfate) Systematic Review of Intermittent Inhaled Corticosteroids and of Long-acting Muscarinic Antagonists for Asthma
Adderall XR (Dextroamphetamine / Amphetamine) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Psychosocial and Pharmacologic Interventions for Disruptive Behavior in Children and Adolescents (October 2015)
Advar Diskus (Flucticasone / Salmeterol) Systematic Review of Intermittent Inhaled Corticosteroids and of Long-acting Muscarinic Antagonists for Asthma
Ativan (Lorazepam) Anxiety in Children
Management of Insomnia Disorder (December 2015)
Strategies To De-escalate Aggressive Behavior in Psychiatric Patients (July 2016)
Brovana (Arformoterol Tartrate) Systematic Review of Intermittent Inhaled Corticosteroids and of Long-acting Muscarinic Antagonists for Asthma
Carbamazepine (Carbamazepine) Treatment for Bipolar Disorder
Anxiety in Children
Effectiveness of Treatments for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Psychosocial and Pharmacologic Interventions for Disruptive Behavior in Children and Adolescents (October 2015)
Medical and Sensory-Related Therapies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Update
Chlorpromazine (Chlorpromazine HCL) First and Second Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults-Comparative Effectiveness Review Update
Treatment for Bipolar Disorder
First Generation vs Second Generation Antipsychotics in Adults: Comparative Effectiveness (2012)
Cimzia (Certolizumab Pegol) Pharmacologic Therapies for the Management of Crohn’s Disease: Comparative Effectiveness (February 2014)
Colchicine (Colchicine) Management of Gout (March 2016)
Copaxone (Glatiramer Acetate) Decisional Dilemmas in Discontinuing Prolonged Disease Modifying Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis (April 2015)
Crestor (Rosuvastatin Calcium) Combination Therapy Versus Intensification of Statin Monotherapy: An Update (February 2014)
Demerol (Meperidine HCL/PF) Pain Management Interventions for Hip Fracture
Depo-Medrol; Methylprednisolone Acetate (Methylprednisolone Acetate) Diagnosis and Management of Infantile Hemangioma (January 2016)
Tonsillectomy for Recurrent Infection and Obstructive Sleep Disordered Breathing
Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee: An Update
Enalapril Maleate (Enalapril Maleate) Comparative Effectiveness of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers Added to Standard Medical Therapy for Treating Stable Ischemic Heart Disease (October 2009)
Epitol (Carbamazepine) Treatment for Bipolar Disorder
Anxiety in Children
Effectiveness of Treatments for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Psychosocial and Pharmacologic Interventions for Disruptive Behavior in Children and Adolescents (October 2015)
Faslodex (Fulvestrant) Management of Uterine Fibroids
Fentanyl Citrate (Fentanyl Citrate/PF) The Effectiveness and Risks of Long-Term Opioid Treatment of Chronic Pain (October 2014)
Effectiveness of Treatments for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Noninvasive Treatments for Low Back Pain (February 2016)
Pain Management Interventions for Hip Fracture
Flovent HFA (Fluticasone Propionate) Systematic Review of Intermittent Inhaled Corticosteroids and of Long-acting Muscarinic Antagonists for Asthma
Forteo (Teriparatide) Treatment To Prevent Fractures in Men and Women With Low Bone Density or Osteoporosis: Update of a 2007 Report (March 2012)
Gemcitabine HCl; Gemzar (Gemcitabine HCl) Emerging Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment of Non–Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer (October 2015)
Treatment of Nonmetastatic Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer (January 2015)
Glumetza (Metformin HCL) Diabetes Medications for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: An Update (April 2016)
Effectiveness of Treatments for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Management of Infertility
Treatment for Bipolar Disorder
Humalog (Insulin Lispro) Methods for Insulin Delivery and Glucose Monitoring: Comparative Effectiveness (July 2012)
Diabetes Medications for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: An Update (April 2016)
Effectiveness of Treatments for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Humira (Adalimumab) Pharmacologic Therapies for the Management of Crohn’s Disease: Comparative Effectiveness (February 2014)
Humira Pen (Adalimumab) Pharmacologic Therapies for the Management of Crohn’s Disease: Comparative Effectiveness (February 2014)
Invega Sustenna (Palperidone Palmitate) First and Second Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults-Comparative Effectiveness Review Update
Off-label Use of Atypical Antipsychotics: an Update (September 2011)
Treatments for Adults with Schizophrenia
Invega Trinza (Palperidone Palmitate) First and Second Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults-Comparative Effectiveness Review Update
Off-label Use of Atypical Antipsychotics: an Update (September 2011)
Treatments for Adults with Schizophrenia
Januvia (Sitagliptin Phosphate) Diabetes Medications for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: An Update (April 2016)
Effectiveness of Treatments for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Lantus (Insulin Glargine, Hum. Rec. Analog) Diabetes Medications for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: An Update (April 2016)
Methods for Insulin Delivery and Glucose Monitoring: Comparative Effectiveness (July 2012)
Effectiveness of Treatments for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Lantus Solostar (Insulin Glargine, Hum. Rec. Analog) Diabetes Medications for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: An Update (April 2016)
Methods for Insulin Delivery and Glucose Monitoring: Comparative Effectiveness (July 2012)
Effectiveness of Treatments for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Latuda (Lurasidone HCL) First and Second Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults-Comparative Effectiveness Review Update
Treatment for Bipolar Disorder
Treatments for Adults with Schizophrenia
Letairis (Ambrisentan) Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Screening, Management, and Treatment (April 2013)
Lyrica (Pregabalin) Treatments for Fibromyalgia in Adult Subgroups (January 2015)
Effectiveness of Treatments for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Noninvasive Treatments for Low Back Pain (February 2016)
Methylphenidate ER (Methylphenidate HCL) Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children and Adolescents
Psychosocial and Pharmacologic Interventions for Disruptive Behavior in Children and Adolescents (October 2015)
Off-label Use of Atypical Antipsychotics: an Update (September 2011)
Anxiety in Children
Medical and Sensory-Related Therapies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Update
Mitomycin (Mitomycin) Emerging Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment of Non–Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer (October 2015)
Naproxen Sodium (Naproxen Sodium) Management of Gout (March 2016)
Noninvasive Treatments for Low Back Pain (February 2016)
Nexium (Esomeprazole Magnesium) Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Treatments for Unstable Angina/Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (November 2013)
Novoseven RT (Coagulation Factor VIIA, Recomb.) Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage (April 2015)
Comparative Effectiveness of In-Hospital Use of Recombinant Factor VIIa for Off-Label Indications vs. Usual Care (June 2010)
Perforomist (Formoterol Fumarate) Systematic Review of Intermittent Inhaled Corticosteroids and of Long-acting Muscarinic Antagonists for Asthma
Pheregan (Promethazine HCL) Strategies To De-escalate Aggressive Behavior in Psychiatric Patients (July 2016)
Prevnar 13 (Pneumococcal 13-Valent Vaccine ) Safety of Vaccines Used for Routine Immunization in the United States (July 2014)
Proair HFA (Albuteral Sulfate) Systematic Review of Intermittent Inhaled Corticosteroids and of Long-acting Muscarinic Antagonists for Asthma
Prolia; Xgeva (Denosumab) Treatment To Prevent Fractures in Men and Women With Low Bone Density or Osteoporosis: Update of a 2007 Report (March 2012)
Propranolol HCL (Propranolol HCL) Diagnosis and Management of Infantile Hemangioma (January 2016)
Remicade (Infliximab) Pharmacologic Therapies for the Management of Crohn’s Disease: Comparative Effectiveness (February 2014)
Remodulin (Treprostinil Sodium) Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Screening, Management, and Treatment (April 2013)
Rituxan (Rituximab) Diagnosis and Treatment of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (August 2016)
Seroquel XR (Quetiapine Fumarate) First- and Second-Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults (February 2012)
First and Second Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults-Comparative Effectiveness Review Update
Strategies To De-escalate Aggressive Behavior in Psychiatric Patients (July 2016)
Off-label Use of Atypical Antipsychotics: an Update (September 2011)
Identification and Treatment of Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) Depression: A Systematic Review
Anxiety in Children
Treatment for Bipolar Disorder
Psychosocial and Pharmacologic Interventions for Disruptive Behavior in Children and Adolescents (October 2015)
Treatments for Adults with Schizophrenia
Medical and Sensory-Related Therapies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Update
Spiriva (Tiotropium Bromide) Systematic Review of Intermittent Inhaled Corticosteroids and of Long-acting Muscarinic Antagonists for Asthma
Suboxone (Buprenophrine HCL/ Naloxone HCL) Medication-Assisted Treatment Models of Care for Opioid Use Disorder in Primary Care Settings
The Effectiveness and Risks of Long-Term Opioid Treatment of Chronic Pain (October 2014)
Symbicort (Budesonide/Formoterol Fumarate) Systematic Review of Intermittent Inhaled Corticosteroids and of Long-acting Muscarinic Antagonists for Asthma
Tecfidera (Dimethyl Fumerate) Decisional Dilemmas in Discontinuing Prolonged Disease Modifying Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis (April 2015)
Tysabri (Natalizumab) Pharmacologic Therapies for the Management of Crohn’s Disease: Comparative Effectiveness (February 2014)
Decisional Dilemmas in Discontinuing Prolonged Disease Modifying Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis (April 2015)
Tyvaso (Treprostinil; Treprostinil/Neb Accessories; Treprostinil/Nebulizer/Accesor) Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Screening, Management, and Treatment (April 2013)
Ventolin HFA (Albuterol Sulfate) Systematic Review of Intermittent Inhaled Corticosteroids and of Long-acting Muscarinic Antagonists for Asthma
Vyvanse (Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate) Management and Outcomes of Binge-Eating Disorder (December 2015)
Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children and Adolescents
Wellbutrin XL (Buproprion HCL) Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children and Adolescents
Antidepressant Treatment of Depression During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period (July 2014)
Nonpharmacological Versus Pharmacological Treatments for Adult Patients With Major Depressive Disorder (December 2015)
Anxiety in Children
Identification and Treatment of Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) Depression: A Systematic Review
Xarelto (Rivaroxaban) Systematic Review Update of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Orthopedic Surgery
Xifaxin (Rifaximin) Early Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment of Clostridium difficile: Update (March 2016)