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How Patients Process Clinical Evidence on Diagnostic and Treatment Effectiveness (Session I)

White Paper Sep 30, 2013

Page Contents

This conference took place on September 12, 2013, in Rockville, Maryland. The conference format had three topic-oriented sessions followed by group discussions to review research, and identify gaps that might be addressed in future study. The specific objectives of the conference were to: (1) review the state of the science around selected questions of importance to engaging patients in the use of evidence in shared decision making; (2) identify gaps in the research between what is known and what is needed to understand regarding the proposed conference theme; and (3) articulate the practical implications of why closing each of these gaps will advance the science and implementation of informed/shared decision making.

This first session addresses how patients process clinical evidence on diagnostic and treatment effectiveness.


Patients, Providers and Systems Needed to Acquire a Specific Set of Competencies

Eric S. Holmboe, M.D.
American Board of Internal Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Implications for Decision Quality under Different Mechanisms for Cognitive Processing of Information

Valerie F. Reyna, Ph.D.
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Evidence-based Strategies for Communicating with Patients and Consumers

Ellen M. Peters, Ph.D.
The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio


Eric S. Holmboe, M.D., is a board-certified internist and serves as the Chief Medical Office and Senior Vice President of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) and the ABIM Foundation. He also is an adjunct professor at Yale University and at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Before joining the ABIM in 2004, he was the Associate Program Director of the Yale Primary Care Internal Medicine Residency Program and the Director of Student Clinical Assessment at the Yale School of Medicine. Before joining Yale in 2000, he served as the Division Chief of General Internal Medicine at the National Naval Medical Center.

Dr. Holmboe's research interests include interventions to improve the quality of health care and methods to evaluate clinical competence. Dr. Holmboe currently is a member of the board of the National Board of Medical Examiners and the American Board of Family Medicine and chairs the Committee on Research and Evaluation of Programs at the American Board of Medical Specialties. His a member of the Society of General Internal Medicine and the Association of Medical Education in Europe, a fellow of the American College of Physicians, and an honorary fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in London.

Dr. Holmboe is a graduate of Franklin and Marshall College and the University of Rochester School of Medicine. He completed his residency and chief residency at Yale–New Haven Hospital and was a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar at Yale University.

Ellen M. Peters, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Psychology at The Ohio State University (OSU). She graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1989 with bachelor’s degrees in engineering and marketing and earned her doctorate in psychology from the University of Oregon in 1998. She joined Decision Research in 1998 and was promoted to Senior Research Scientist in 2006. In 2010, she became an associate professor at OSU and was promoted to professor in 2012. Dr. Peters is a recognized leader in risk perception/communication and the psychology of health decisionmaking, publishing papers on the effects of affect, numeracy, number processing, and aging. With more than 80 peer-reviewed publications, her research focuses on how affective, intuitive, and deliberative processes help people to make decisions in an increasingly complex world. She is a fellow of the American Psychological Society and has worked extensively with federal agencies (e.g., the National Cancer Institute, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration [FDA]) to advance the science of human decisionmaking as it applies to health decisions and communication. She was a founding member of the FDA's Risk Communication Advisory Committee and has chaired that committee. She has also been a consultant to the FDA's Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee and has worked extensively with the design of decision aids to maximize their comprehension and use across diverse populations.

Valerie F. Reyna, Ph.D., serves as the Director of the Human Neuroscience Institute and as the Codirector of the Cornell University Magnetic Resonance Imaging Facility and of the Center for Behavioral Economics and Decision Research at Cornell University. She is a professor and a member of the faculty in the Human Development, Psychology, Cognitive Science, and Neuroscience (IMAGINE) Program and at Weill Cornell Medical College. Dr. Reyna holds a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Rockefeller University. She is a developer of fuzzy-trace theory, a model of the relationship between memory and decisionmaking that has been widely applied in the fields of law, medicine, and public health. Her recent work has focused on meaning and mental representation; aging, neurocognitive impairment, and genetic risk factors (e.g., in Alzheimer's disease); rationality and risky decisionmaking, particularly risk taking in adolescence; and neuroimaging models of framing and decisionmaking. She has also extended fuzzy-trace theory to risk perception, numeracy, and dual processes in medical decisionmaking by both physicians and patients. A past president of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, she is a fellow of numerous scientific societies and has served on scientific panels of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and the MacArthur Foundation.

Project Timeline

Preparing and Engaging Patients in the Use of Evidence in Shared Decision Making (Eisenberg Center Conference Series 2013)

Nov 29, 2016
Topic Initiated
Sep 30, 2013
White Paper
Sep 30, 2013
Sep 30, 2013
Sep 30, 2013
Page last reviewed July 2019
Page originally created November 2017

Internet Citation: White Paper: How Patients Process Clinical Evidence on Diagnostic and Treatment Effectiveness (Session I). Content last reviewed July 2019. Effective Health Care Program, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.

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