Example 1: We are interested in the comparison of older antidepressant medications to newer ones. We are also interested in knowing whether there is difference if people are treated by primary care provider instead of a psychiatrist. We are interested in outcomes of symptoms of depression, suicide, and the side effects of treatment.
Example 1 in more structured format:
Questions: What is the comparative effectiveness of newer antidepressant medications to older antidepressant medications? Does the effectiveness vary by provider type?
Population: adults with depression.
Intervention and Comparator: newer antidepressant drugs (e.g., vortioxetine) vs. older antidepressant drugs (e.g., buproprion, fluoxetine)
Outcomes: response to treatment, suicidal ideation, depression symptoms, adverse effects.
Example 2: We are interested in the impact of various and newer physician compensation plans. Specifically, we are interested in their effect on physician behavior, care quality, and care cost. We are also interested in how they have evolved in recent decades.
Example 2 in more structured format:
Question: What are the benefits and harms of physician compensation plans on physician behavior, quality of care and health care costs?
Population: health care providers
Intervention and Comparator: any physician compensation plan or model vs. any other plan or model
- provider outcomes (e.g., burnout incidence, satisfaction)
- Patient outcomes (e.g., quality of life, mortality, morbidity, health care utilization);
- individual and institutional costs (e.g., patient, provider and health system)
Overall Example: What is the effectiveness of ______ (intervention) for ______ (population) for the following outcomes ______?